The CONTACT tables
Vehicle-dynamic simulation includes solving many millions of contact problems in order to incorporate the wheel-rail creep force behavior. In most circumstances it is acceptable to solve these problems fast and approximately. This is accomplished in Kalker's USETAB program by interpolating a table that's pre-calculated using the full CONTACT software. The benefit over FASTSIM is that this incorporates full linear elasticity. As a drawback, the geometry is assumed to be Hertzian.
Table-based approaches are used for wheel-rail contact evaluation in VAMPIRE® and NUCARS®. They are the best compromise between speed and accuracy for Hertzian circumstances [Vollebregt2011a]. Special tables are provided that include the effects of interfacial layers and falling friction too.
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