Extended CONTACT tables for VAMPIRE®
The VAMPIRE® software allows the user to build a dynamic model fo any rail vehicle and study the response of the vehicle to real measured track geometry. Rail vehicles can be modelled with simulated instrumentation allowing almost any aspect of behaviour to be studied. VAMPIRE® Pro is a product of DeltaRail UK, which developed out of the famous British Rail Research.
VAMPIRE® uses a Hertzian approach for the normal contact force and creep-force tables for the tangential force. The first tables were developed by Prof. Kalker as early as 1980. New tables were computed by VORtech in 2005, see [Vollebregt2009a]. These new tables are built using Kalker's original contact theories.
The effect of contaminants may be included by the so-called percent Kalker approach. However, this modifies the creepages in an ad-hoc way, especially large spin creepage arising during flanging. As an alternative, Extended CONTACT tables are provided by VORtech, including the interfacial layer and falling friction effects of the Extended CONTACT model.
- Assessing the effects of contamination on derailment and vehicle stability;
- based on sound theory, realistically including spin creepage;
- fully integrated in the vehicle dynamic simulation.
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